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APA STYLE CITATION REFERENCE

INDIVIDUAL WORKS

. Author/editor. (Year). Title (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available: Supplier/Database identifier or number [Access date]

. Author/editor. (Year). Title (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date]

Examples:

. Oxford English dictionary computer file: On compact disc (2nd ed.), [CD-ROM]. (1992). Available: Oxford UP [1995, May 27].

. Kennedy, John F. (1963). Ich bin ein Berliner [Online]. Available: http://www.famousquotes.me.uk/speeches/presidential-speeches/presidential-speech-jfk-berliner.htm[1963, June 26].

PARTS OF WORKS

. Author/editor. (Year). Title (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available: Supplier/Database identifier or number [Access date]

. Author/editor. (Year). Title (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date]

Examples:

. Marrakech. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/366128/Marrakech [2009].

*This is an article from an encyclopedia with no author given.

. Rogers, Kara. (2009). H1N1 Flu: The Pandemic of 2009: Year in Review 2009. In Encyclopædia Britannica: [Online]. Available: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1574957/H1N1-Flu-The-Pandemic-of-2009 [2009].

*When citing information retrieved on the World Wide Web, it is not necessary to repeat the protocol (HTTP) after "Available" since that is stated in the URL.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

. Author. (Year). Title. Journal Title [Type of medium], volume(issue), paging or indicator of length. Available: Supplier/Database name (Database identifier or number, if available)/Item or accession number [Access date].

. Author. (Year). Title. Journal Title [Type of medium], volume(issue), paging or indicator of length. Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date].

Examples:

. Cho, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221-232. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002

. Franbarn, P. B. (2009, July-August). Copyright renewal, copyright restoration, and the difficulty of determining copyright status. D-Lib Magazine, 14(7/8). doi:10.1045/july2009-hirtle

MAGAZINE ARTICLES

. Author. (Year, month day). Title. Magazine Title [Type of medium], volume (if given), paging or indicator of length. Available: Supplier/Database name (Database identifier or number, if available)/Item or accession number [Access date].

. Author. (Year, month day). Title. Magazine Title [Type of medium], volume (if given), paging or indicator of length. Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date].

Examples:

. Sadlow, M. (2001, September 3). The Stem-Cell Research. National Review, 53(17), 19-20. Retrieved September 4, 2001, from Academic Search Premier database.

. Smith, A. (2004, November 15). Pavlov's Sister New Yorker, 70(39), 63-66. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/

NEWSPAPER ARTICLES

. Author. (Year, month day). Title. Newspaper Title [Type of medium], paging or indicator of length. Available: Supplier/Database name (Database identifier or number, if available)/Item or accession number [Access date].

. Author. (Year, month day). Title. Newspaper Title [Type of medium], paging or indicator of length. Available Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File [Access date].

Examples:

. Ulrich, T. (1997, September 22). Linking an Amish hereditary disease with cerebral palsy, a pediatrician challenges a dark inheritance. Time, 150, 30-33. [1997, September 22]

. Brown, P. L. (1999, September 5). Tiffany glass and other tales from the crypt. New York Times, pp. 1, 5. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/[1999, September 5]

PERSONAL ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION

. Sender (Sender's E-mail address). (Year, Month day). Subject of Message. E-mail to recipient (Recipient's E-mail address)

Example:

. Smith, John( Jsmith@hotmail.com). (1998, August 20). Meeting time to discuss new business. Email to Mary Jane (mjane@msn.com).

REFERENCE CITATIONS IN-TEXT

The following is adapted from the 5th Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2001):

As you are writing your paper, remember that you must provide a reference to your source within the context or text of your paper, (called an "in text reference"). This reference must be provided for everything that you quote, paraphrase, or summarize and must lead back to an entry on your works cited page. APA guidelines require you to provide the name(s) of the author(s), as well as the date and page numbers of the source where your quoted, paraphrased, or summarized material is located. If you include the author(s)' name within the sentence with the quoted, paraphrased, or summarized material, then you need to put the date in parentheses behind the author(s)'name(s) and the page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

Author not mentioned in text: "To have a coherent and successful interaction, communicators must cooperate and coordinate their responses. Thus, any one interactant has the potential to exert considerable influence over the other" (Street, 2002, p. 202).

Author mentioned in text: According to Street, (2002) "To have a coherent and successful interaction, communicators must cooperate and coordinate their responses. Thus, any one interactant has the potential to exert considerable influence over the other" (p. 202).

Two or more Authors not mentioned in text: "Blind Date frames the reality of each date both to invoke accepted notions of aesthetics, economics, social, and intellectual abilities and to punish participants deviations from these norms" (DeRose, Fursich, and Haskins, 2003, p. 177).

Two or more Authors mentioned in text: DeRose, Fursich, and Haskins (2003) claim that "Blind Date frames the reality of each date both to invoke accepted notions of aesthetics, economics, social, and intellectual abilities and to punish participants deviations from these norms" (p. 177).

When a work has between three and six authors, cite all of the authors the first time. After the first in text citation, only cite the last name of the first author followed by et al: DeRose et al. (2003) claim that "Blind Date frames the reality of each date both to invoke accepted notions of aesthetics, economics, social, and intellectual abilities and to punish participants deviations from these norms" (p. 177).

No Author: When citing a work without an author, write the first few words of the title of the work followed by the date of publication. If the work is an article from a journal, magazine, website, or chapter in a book, place quotation marks around the title. If the work is an entire periodical, book, website, or brochure, italicize the title.

Unknown author not mentioned in text: "HTML is the lingua franca of the Net. It's a simple, universal mark-up language that allows Web publishers to create complex pages of text and images that can be viewed by anyone else on the Web, regardless of what kind of computer or browser is being used" ("Intro to HTML," 2003) Unknown author mentioned in text: According to the site "Intro to HTML," (2003) "HTML is the lingua franca of the Net. It's a simple, universal mark-up language that allows Web publishers to create complex pages of text and images that can be viewed by anyone else on the Web, regardless of what kind of computer or browser is being used"

HELPFUL CITATION RESOURCES